What Factors Affect Drug Metabolism?

How does genetic factors affect drug metabolism?

Genetic polymorphisms have been identified for many drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes.

This gives rise to distinct population phenotypes of persons who have metabolism capabilities ranging from extremely poor to extremely fast..

What are 2 general factors that can influence drug metabolism?

Factors Affecting drug MetabolismPhysiological Conditions (age, diet, hormone balance)Pathological Conditions (impaired liver or kidney function)Genetic Factors (species/strain difference, sex, ethnic polymorphism, individual differences)Drug-drug Interactions (enzyme inhibition, enzyme induction)More items…

What is the process of metabolism?

Metabolism is the term for a set of chemical reactions that occur in the cells of living organisms to sustain life. The metabolic processes lead to growth and reproduction and allow living organisms to maintain their structures and respond to the surrounding environment.

What factors can affect drug metabolism in an elderly?

Aging results in a number of significant changes in the human liver including reductions in liver blood flow, size, drug-metabolizing enzyme content, and pseudocapillarization. Drug metabolism is also influenced by comorbid disease, frailty, concomitant medicines, and (epi)genetics.

What foods increase metabolism?

The 12 Best Foods to Boost Your MetabolismProtein-Rich Foods. Protein-rich foods, such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy, legumes, nuts and seeds, could help increase your metabolism for a few hours. … Iron, Zinc and Selenium-Rich Foods. … Chili Peppers. … Coffee. … Tea. … Legumes and Pulses. … Metabolism-Boosting Spices. … Cacao.More items…•

What are the factors affecting metabolism?

Your metabolic rate is influenced by many factors – including age, gender, muscle-to-fat ratio, amount of physical activity and hormone function.

What are the phases of drug metabolism?

The metabolism of xenobiotics is often divided into three phases:- modification, conjugation, and excretion.

What are the two phases of metabolism?

Metabolism is often divided into two phases: Phase 1 metabolism involves chemical reactions such as oxidation (most common), reduction and hydrolysis. There are three possible results of phase 1 metabolism.

What is the function of metabolism?

Metabolism is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function.

What factors affect drug absorption?

Factors affecting Absorption of DrugsLipid water solubility. Lipid water solubility coefficient is the ratio of dissolution of drug in lipid as compared to water. … Molecular size. Smaller the molecular size of the drug, rapid is the absorption. … Particle size. … Degree of Ionization. … Physical Forms. … Chemical Nature. … Dosage Forms. … Formulation.More items…•

What organ is responsible for metabolism?

The liver plays a central role in all metabolic processes in the body. In fat metabolism the liver cells break down fats and produce energy.

How does dehydration affect drug absorption?

The reduction in the drug–plasma concentration in dehydrated rabbits may be attributed to higher osmolarity of the blood, interfering with rapid absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract.

How does pH affect drug solubility?

Solubility is Affected by pH By changing the pH of the solution, you can change the charge state of the solute. If the pH of the solution is such that a particular molecule carries no net electric charge, the solute often has minimal solubility and precipitates out of the solution.

What is metabolism example?

Metabolic reactions may be categorized as catabolic – the breaking down of compounds (for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate by cellular respiration); or anabolic – the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids).

Does food affect drug absorption?

Like food, drugs taken by mouth must be absorbed through the lining of the stomach or the small intestine. Consequently, the presence of food in the digestive tract may reduce absorption of a drug. Often, such interactions can be avoided by taking the drug 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating.